Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Uncertain future.

With the devastating earthquake in April 25, 2015 in Nepal, causing a massive destruction of houses, buildings, human lives. What next after it? This is the question everyone is asking about and the answer to this question is lost somewhere in the horizon. The reason for this question to be raised is because of the unstable condition of Nepal.  The people who have successful survived the earthquake may have felt lucky to be alive but now they are facing challenge in their everyday life. The people who were living in the most effect places of earthquake are still living in tents with no hope of building a new home. The minimal amount provided to them is not enough for their food then how can someone expect that will they build a new house for themselves.
Different NGO, INGO’s and other individual bodies or institution have been working for the relief materials to be sent to the earthquake victim, but they are not aware about the fact that only some of the victims has received it not even touching other half of the earthquake victim. Everyday has been hard for the earthquake victim and there is no answer on who would take the responsibility for it. They had endured the chilling winter and have not slept due to cold winter. And now the summer is approaching and the heat from the scorching sun make life at the tent harder for themselves. The future and hope seems diminishing for the victim.

Youth’s future is uncertain; children are not receiving education and thus leading to uncertain future. Even providing a small house has been delayed and there is no news of making a small house or to provide fund to the victim then how would one’s future is certain when they even don’t have a basic necessity to live. Everything direct to one question and that is who is responsible person or authority to provide the basic necessity for the victim? 

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

An innocent soul

Mother a woman who gives birth to a child. That woman who has given a life to the children and can sacrifice everything for that childen. A woman has to go through different stages to play the role of the mother. But deep insisde there are many examples of those children who would discard their mother at their old age. And they ended up in the old age home. Old age is the age where they need special care and rest. It’s the age when children have to look after their parents. But their selfishness put those old woman in the old age home. What types of children could do that? There are many examples and many of them wonder on how could a children be so cruel. Jestha Nagarik Awas Griha, an old age home situated at subhidanagar, baneswor, Kathmandu. It is for those who don’t have anywhere to go and live. Jestha nagarik awas griha is only for the old woman. It has been providing shelther to those woman from a decade. But still the old woman are not seen happy and satisified. How could someone be happy? When that person has to left everyone behind and could not meet anyone of the family member. To whom should they blame, their children or their fate. The answer to this question is still missing and they wonder why did their children did it. whether it is dashain or tihar or even mother’s day many of their children didn’t go there to visit their mother. Has the children has been so cruel that they don’t have tome for their old mother. Has they forget that someday they’ll be also old and if their children did the same will they don’t be hurt. If asked that are you living then they’ll reply yes, but they don’t have the answe of how. They are hurt each and every single day. They keep their eyes open and wide hoping that one day their children will come to visit and take them back. But now, they don’t seem to go back to that place where they have been badly hurt. Is it not the duty of the children to look after their parents and support them at their old age. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMsjjcUFRHw&feature=youtu.be Some of them has come voluntarily and some of them has been left their by children. But still the story of everyone is the same and they all have the same tune of the story. Deep inside everyone story matches with each other.


1. How does online redefine mass communication? Online media has been widely used around the world. Now adays to get the news also online has taken place. From our morning till the end of the day, people are busy in the internet. News can be received from our mobile devices. At our office desk also we get the information through online. With the development of online media mass communication meaning has also been redefined. Along with the new online media, Mass communicaton has been highligthing the concept on the changing nature of audience. Mass communication has been broadly defined as the two way of communication, where there is the dissemination of the information, ideas, opinions in it. In the traditional media mass communication has to be with the flow of information and the priority of receiving feedback has been less. But now with the advancement of technology mass communication has been defined in another interactive form of media. With the development comes mass communication as the more interactive form provididng people with endless opinions to be shared. The today interactive form of media has redefined the meaning of mass communication giving space to the audience. There are many official sites of various news channel and of the daily newspaper. This can also be one of the leading truth behind the its popular in our country. Some of the examples of our country in transforming in online media is the leading newspaper has its own official website through which one can easily get the information. www.himalayantimes.com,ekantipur.com,imagechannel.com are the leadings newspaper and channel which are disseminating information through online.

 2. Discuss citizen journalism? Also discuss how the online media has been vital in the development of citizen journalism? Citizen journalism is the newer function of journalism which has been giving place or apace to the one who wants to work in the field of journalism. But they may not be the professional one. In citizen journalism the public is the main publisher of the content that person has been writing for. Now days citizen journalist has been used produce regular report and also some at the coverage of the event. In citizen journalism , communities has been built to process the information. There is the wide range of audience participation in it. It is an independent news ans news site in it. High range of audience participation has made it a participatory site and some as collabatory sites. There are different forms of citizen journalism. They are like: audience participation, Independent news or information websites, participatory news sites, collaborative and contributory news sites, thin media and personal broadcasting sites. Online media has been given the new platform for the independent writers who want their work to be published in the web. It has made them easier to be a journalist for themeselves. This type of platform provides them with the freedom of expressing their opinions and views. Some of the examples of the citizen journalism are the blog sites where the writer of the author is amateur person who are not working in the field of the professional level.

  3. Discuss function and disfunction of web 2.0?
Web 2.0 is a concept that takes the network as the platform of the sharing of the information , interoperability, user centered design and collaboration on the world wide web. It allows the users to be interact and collaborate with each other in the social media.blogs, wikis, video sharing and others social medium are its example. Web 2.0 has been arrived from web 1.0 with some different fundamentals in it.
• In here memebers of the public becomes publisher
. • Members of public helps to decide what’s new and how it’s presented
• Members of the public build communities to help
Now adays blogs, wikis has been famous and has become one of the means of receiving information and reacting to it. Web 2.0 has may advantages as it has given space to interact and pass the information to the public. Public has been able to interact and also to write their own contenet in it. It gives chance to share the file and learn more about it. Along with the advantage sof this softyware there are some disadvantage s in it. The main disfunction of it is wheteher ro rely on the information provided in it. It is accurate or not it is not defined in the internet. Whether the source quoted in it are the real sources of the information flowed in it.there are may challeneges that new media has to faced along it. By knowing only about writing in the web is not done there are still to be done to know they has to clear on how to write the contenet and make it easier for users to know their sites. Even though Web 2.o has provide a platform but also has some disfunction in it. And also some of the content publish in it may not be applicable for everyone to view it.

  4. Write short notes on. Mark zukenberg: Mark zukenberg the famous co founder of the famous social networking sites facebook. He was born in 14 may, 1984 at white plains new york Facebook has been widely used by everyone whole around the world. He is known as one of the internet entrepreneur and a computer programmer. He is the chairman and the chief executive of the social networking site facebook. From 2010 he has been named among the 100 wealthiest and the most influential people in the world by times magazines. He is also known as the youngest billionare as of 2008.

Monday, June 25, 2012

The most extreme airport

Amisha Lama, Report on Lukla In this world there are different airports where people go to choose their destination. We often heard about the plane crash in different parts of the country and yes there are accidents but many of them are happened in the deasliest airport of the world. There are different deadliest airports in which many people had lost their lives. In all the deadliest airport of the world. A program titled Most Extreme Airports broadcast on The History Channel in 2010, rated the Lukla airport as the most dangerous airport in the world. The 10 deadliest airports of the world are. 1. Lukla airport (Nepal) 2. Toncontin International. 3. St. Barthelemy 4. St. Maarten 5. Gibraltar 6. Kai Tak 7. Corchevel 8. Eagle Veil 9. Maderia 10. San Diego International Airport Lukla has been known as the deadliest airport of the world. It is in the number one of the deadliest airport of the world. In January 2008, it was named after the honour of Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest and also to mark their efforts in the construction of this airport. Some of the other airports are located at that place that no one could predict about it. Some are situated in the steep hill and some are at the beach, where one can see that the plane are just above their head or in their vehicle. This are the deadliest airport of the world. And above all the deadliest Lukla airport stand infront of all. The reason behind to become one of the deadliest airport are. There are daily flights between Lukla and Kathmandu during daylight hours, in good weather. Although the flying distance is short, rain commonly occurs in Lukla while the sun is shining brightly in Kathmandu. High winds, cloud cover and changing visibility often mean flights can be delayed or the airport closed completely. The airport is contained within a chain link fence and patrolled by the Nepal armed police or civil police around the clock The weather of the lukla is not predictable and no one can be sure about what would be the weather. Not only that the planes had to go through crossing different hills. The airport it is in the top of the hill where one can see the villages down. Not only this the passage through which the plane had to land there it is always busy and others plane are looking forward to go through the same passage. The main entrance and the leaving port of the airport is same. Where we can see that when one airplane is landing then the other is rushing towards to take off from it. To land or to take off from the lukla airport they had to go through different hills and many of them feel that they are going to hit the hills. Many aeroplane crash has been in the lukla. The recent airplane crash that has happened in the lukla were in 2010 25th August killing all the 11 passengers and 3 crew. Many incidents and accidenta has happened in the Lukla airport. There has been the enomoruss reason on why it is the deadliest airport of the world. Not only that lukla stand in front of all the deadliest there are other deadliest airports where one has to have the courage to take the flight and have the deadliest experience of it. There are many incidents and accidents have been in the lukla airport. Some of the incidents and the accidents at the Lukla airport are:  On 15 October 1973, on landing at the airport, a Royal Nepal Airlines DHC-6 Twin Otter 300, registration 9N-ABG, was damaged beyond repair. The three crew and three passengers were unhurt.  On 9 June 1991, flying from Kathmandu, a Royal Nepal Airlines DHC-6 Twin Otter 300, registration 9N-ABA, crashed at the airport while attempting to land following anunstabilized approach in bad weather. All three crew and fourteen passengers were unhurt.  On 26 September 1992, a Royal Air Nepal Harbin Yunshuji Y-12-11 registered 9N-ACI faltered during take-off and was damaged beyond repair. All on board (twelve passengers and two crew) survived.  On 25 May 2004, while on approach to the airport, a Yeti Airlines DHC-6 Twin Otter Series 300 (registration 9N-AFD) flying from Kathmandu crashed into Lamjura Hill in heavy cloud. No passengers were on board, but all three crew members were killed. The Nepalese accident investigation committee concluded that the captain provided inaccurate information as regards his position to the Area Control Centre.  On 1 October 2004, on landing at the airport, a Sita Air Dornier Do 228 suffered a collapse of its nose gear and slid along the runway, blocking it once it had come to rest. The airport was closed for two days.  On 30 June 2005, a Gorkha Airlines Dornier Do 228 skidded off the runway while attempting to land. The nine passengers and three crew suffered minor injuries. The aircraft was reportedly withdrawn from use and written off after the accident.  On 8 October 2008, Yeti Airlines Flight 103, a DHC-6 Twin Otter (registration 9N-AFE) crashed on final approach and caught fire, killing eighteen passengers and crew. The aircraft's captain was the only survivor. Video of the incident showed inclement weather at the time of the incident.  On 25 August 2010, Agni Air Flight 101, a Dornier Do 228, crashed at Shikharpur while returning to Kathmandu after bad weather had prevented it from reaching Lukla. All eleven passengers and three crew perished.  On 12 October 2010, a Sita Air Dornier Do 228 (registration 9N-AHB) lost braking control and impacted the wall-end of the runway during landing. All passengers and crew on board survived without injuries and the aircraft received damage to its nose. Many incidents and accidents happened in the Lukla airport giving the experiencing the deadliest feeling. Many passengers describe it as the amazing and the horrible experience of the life. Eventhough there are many incidents and accidents happen but the people who love to climb and see Mt. everest they’ll visit it at any cost.

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Hierarchy of effects

On the world of marketing, hierarchy of effects plays an important role in to promote and make the products reach to the customers. Hierarchy of effects, it was developed Robert J Lavidge and Gary A Steiner in the year 1961. Hierarchy of effects model is in the pyramid style where the lower level objective set is the awareness, Knowledge and the comprehension. Moving on with the pyramid is the desired responses of the customs such as associated feelings with the brand, trial or regular use etc. At the bottom of the pyramid it is easier to achieve than at the top of the pyramid as it is more action oriented. According to the hierarchy of effects, it goes down in the 6 steps in order to achieve the ultimate aim in the marketing. They are: 1.Awareness 2.Knowledge 3.Liking 4.Preference 5.Conviction 6.Purchase According to this pyramid the upper objectives sets are easier to achieve and when it becomes more action oriented the level to gain the objectives become tougher. Definitions on the six steps of hierarchy of effects: 1. Awareness: The role of the awareness in the hierarchy of effects model is too aware the consumer about the product that the marketers are trying to make the consumer buy it. It just makes aware the consumers. 2. Knowledge: Now the consumer is aware about the product but they may not know about the product. There comes the second stage that is knowledge. It gives the answer of what, why and who about the brand. Its speciality, benefits, features and why it is different from others? 3. Liking: In it the main things is to notice the product and with it comes the consumer favourable towards the product. 4. Preference: It is the process in which the consumer prefers which product. Consumer prefer by promoting quality value, performance and other features of the product. 5. Convince: In this process the main thing is to convince the consumer to make them desire to purchase the product. 6. Purchase: The final step of the process. It is to purchase the product and make it theirs. This is the hierarchy of effects in the marketing world. Similar to hierarchy of effect is the FCB Grid. It is suggested by Dave Berger and Richard Vaughn. This model combines the high and low involvement, and feeling and thinking approach. In high involvement consumer makes a very important decision, the decision required is very high and if made any wrong decision and choose wrong brand than there is very much to lose. In low involvement the decision made is unimportant, decision is made by little thought and if they choose the wrong brand than there is less to lose. In feeling and emotional approach, decisions are not made by feelings and it expresses the personality. In think or rational approach decision are not manly logical or objective, It is not based on functional facts. Even though this model provides the guideline to marketing. But the fact should not be under looked that it has some shortcomings and the consequences too. Shortcoming This model provides the marketers a guideline to know about their actual progress in making their brand known to the consumer and make them purchase it. But still there lacks something in it. If things are not followed and done adequately than they cannot achieve what they had set for. Some of the shortcomings in the hierarchy of effects are that if the message intended for the consumers is not get properly than they may have to lose their targeted consumer. And if they are not successful in each and every steps than they may have to adopt an another way in promoting their brand. There should be back up for each and every steps of it. And the communicator should be all prepared to make the brand known to the consumers as they are the main things in all these process. First and foremost things that should be look is the sampling of the brand. And if the sampling is not done properly than the steps carried out will not be successful. When the steps or objective goes than it is more action oriented and in that case a single mistake cost a lot. So, in that they had to make the customer prefer and make them to purchase it. It all depends on the communicator to make the brand purchase. Consequences When any model is carry out than it has an ultimate result. This result or consequences defines the success of it. In hierarchy of effects model when the steps are carried out than the result will come sometime favouring the brand or sometimes not. It all depends on the consumer to purchase the brand they are actually selling to the customers. If the customers are satisfied with the brand than they seem to choose the brand and use it again. Or there may be some consumer just trying the brand for once and not use it later. So the ultimate result that comes forth is that at the first they seem to be interest as in terms of purchase of the product the result is out and from then one can analyse the type of customer in preferring the brand. This is the consequence of the Hierarchy of effects model. Conclusion Hierarchy of effects model is a guideline for ever marketers to promote a brand and how to set their goals in order to make their brand purchased by the customer. This in fact had made easier for marketers, advertisers. With the help of this model they can know their efficiency and their targeted audiences when they launch any brand or product. Thus, it is an effective model in marketing. Reference: 1. drypen.in/advertising/hiereachy of effectsmodel.html 2. www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2008/06/marketing-essen.html 3. www.egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/38330/1/Unit-15.pdf 4. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/hierarchy-of-effects.html 5. http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/introductionadvertising/201221-hierarchy-effects-model.html

Monday, May 14, 2012

Some of the folktales of the Asia

The Emperor and the Nightingle China Long ago, in the garden of the emperor Wu’s splendid place in China, there lived a nightingle. It sang so sweetly that all who heard it agreed that what they liked most in the garden was the nightingle’s singing. One day the emperor of Japan came to visit Emperor Wu and he too, fell in love with the nightingle’s songs. When he return home he wrote a letter to Emperor Wu saying that his favourite memory of his visit to china had been the nightingle singing. Emperor Wu was very surprised to hear this because he had never heard the nightingle sing before!He immediately ordered his servants to bring this wonderful bird to him. He enjoyes its singing so much that he insisted in keeping it near him in his palace. Many months passed and the nightingle kept Emperor Wu very happy until one day, the Emperor of Japan sent him a little toy bird which could sing and dance. Emperor Wu became so fascinated by this bird that he completely forgot about the nightingle. The poor nightingle felt so sad and unwanted that it flew away from the palaca and for a whole year no one saw it and no one heard its lovely singing. Then one day the toy bird suddenly stopped singing and dancing. Toymakers from all over the land came to the palace to try and mend it but the toy bird lay still and silent. The Emperor longed for music again in his palace and ordered his men to bring the nightingle back to him. They searched far and wide but they could not find it anywhere. The Emperor became sadder and sadder with each day passing by. He stopped eating and sleeping and just lay in his bed waiting to die. Then, one night the emperor heard the bird singing so sweetly outside his bedroom that he was sure that it was the nightingle. He slowly sat up in bed and the tears rolled down his cheeks, for there on the window still sat his beloved nightingle. “stay with me dear nightingle,”he whispered, √§nd I promise I will never neglect you again.” From that day on, the nightingle satyed in the palace and its sweet singing made the emperor well again and kept him happy and contented for the rest of his life.
The Ugly Boatman Vietnam
Once upon a time, there lived a young boatman by the name of Troung Chi. He was a very kind man but extremely ugly. He led a lonely life and spent his time fishing and playing the flute. All who heard his music fell in love with it. The beautiful daughter of the Mandarian Lord adored his music. Every evening, she waited for his boat to pass by her window. When she heard the sweet notes of his flute, her face sparkled with happiness. Her father was really unhappy about his daughter’s love for the poor boatman’s music. He ordered his men to lock all the windows of his mansion. Troung Chi’s music could no longer be heard and the lovely girl grew sadder and sadder. She became very ill and no doctor could help her. Her father feared that she might die. He promised to give her anything she wanted. “just the boatman’s sweet music. “she whispered. The Mandarian lord quickly summoned Troung Chi to her bedside. The boatman kind heart ached when he saw the young girl so close to death. He softly played his flute. A smile flickered across her face and her parents knew she was better. Then she opened her eyes and looked into Troung Chi’s face. She started to cry. Tears of disappointment streamed down her cheeks. “Oh!”she thought, “how could such an ugly man play such beautiful music.” Her parents begged Troung Chi to help her. He knew why she was crying and that he could do nothing more. Troung Chi returned to his boat and his lonely life. He longed to see the Mandarian’s daughter again but he knew that this was impossible. He lost interest in everything, even his flute. Then one cold night, he fell ill. He grew weaker everyday and he knew that he was dying. Before he died, he asked that his heart to be made into a cup for the Mandarian’s daughter. After Troung Chi die, all that remained of him was his heart of gold. It was made into a delicate cup and given to the mandarian’s daughter. She thought it was the loveliest thing she had ever seen.
She immediately filled the cup with tea and lifted it to her lips. Her heart suddenly froze! There in the cup she saw Troung Chi’s shadow and heard his flute. The music was sweet at first, but then it changed. It sounded like the cry of a man with a broken heart. She let the cup slip from her grasp. It shattered into a thousand pieces and the music abruptly stop. Troung chi’s heart and his music were free forever. But not so the mandarian’s daughter. She never married. For the rest of her life she remained haunted by the boatman’s tender love for her and his beautiful gentle music.

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Inner beauty

What is it like when people say that you are beautiful. everyone becomes happy and lively. They seem to be the luckiest to be said that they are beautiful. Yes, it's true that beauty should be admired and praised. But one thing should always be remembered that the outer beauty is nothing without the inner beauty of a person. Inner beauty reflects what type pf person are we. Many people focused on the outer beauty saying that it is what that is admired but when time passes by then many people want to know the type of person that is within you. A person has different phases of life in which the one succeed it and in other it loses. Along with the phases there are steps in which they are destined from being a children to an old person. It's the reality and the true fact of the world. In that step pf life they are different phases, a child, teenager, adult, mature and lastly the senior citizenship. As, time passes the outer beauty of the person looks older and older as day passes but the inner beauty of the person will not lose its charm and never be old and never dies. Even though the person dies but the inner beauty will always be remembered by the people. if anyone have to say that there is something that is remembered about the died person then it is the behavior and the inner beauty of the person. One thing should not be forget that when the person inner is beautiful and that beauty will glorify the outer beauty of the person.